Conducting research with children raises additional ethical issues to research with adults. Research with migrants and refugees raises additional issues because of their mobility or uncertain political status. Power inequalities raises ethical issues with certain populations, while various populations are subjected to different vulnerabilities. Starting your exploration of ethical issues with the particular population you plan to conduct your research with can be another path to pursue. I think we should change some of the subdomains. Prisoners is not a group we have much information on. Therefore, I think we should remove it, but add Combatants, Former Combatants, and Torture Victims.
|Women Women are more likely to experience violence, abuse, and economic disadvantages in humanitarian and disaster settings. They also have a higher death rate and suffer more injuries. Nevertheless, women are key players in the disaster response and in helping communities rebuild. When conducting disaster research with women, ethical considerations should be made to avoid exploitation, protect confidentiality, and promote justice.
|Children Children are often considered a vulnerable population regarding participation in research. As a result, additional steps are usually required to ensure they are not harmed by their participation in research.
|Minorities A minority group can be identified by an ethnic, racial, religious, gender, or sexual orientation identity. The literature provides evidence that minorities are more likely to experience health disparities, discrimination, and lack access to social and health resources during disasters and conflicts.
|Disability Not only are the health needs of people with disability unique during an emergency, disability can also be used as a discriminatory factor leading to serious human rights abuses. Conducting ethical research with disabled people in these environments, as well as ensuring their inclusion in research, are important considerations and challenging to balance.
|Prisoners and Torture Survivors It is important that any ethical framework employed for research with survivors of torture, who live with both physical and psychological scars, and incarcerated individuals is continually evaluated to minimize risk of coercion or further harm. However, literature on the ethics of research with these populations is sparse.
|Migrants and Refugees From protocol development to data dissemination, research involving migrant and refugee populations must consider the unique circumstances of their displacement. These circumstances range from acute and transient to chronic and (relatively) stable scenarios. Ethical considerations primarily include issues of trust and confidentiality, research benefit and risks to participants, imbalances of power in the research relationship, and appropriate methodologies for data collection