Different types of research raise different ethical issues. Conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) has ethical components that are not present in a qualitative interview. Some methods can provide participants with anonymity, while others raise ethical issues around privacy. Conducting research on a person’s biological samples has different ethical issues compared to asking them personal questions about sensitive issues. Some of these ethical issues are relevant regardless of the specific topic or intervention being explored, so this can be another place for your exploration to begin. Subdomain changes: Biological Sample Studies; Clinical Trials (non-randomized); Individual Interview; Focus Group Interview; Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT); remove Qualitative; leave the other ones as they are.
|Biological Sample Study How biological samples are collected, stored, and used will inevitably affect the participants from whom samples are collected since they are identifiable data. The scientific knowledge generated from biological samples serves a valuable role during or after disasters, but these studies must be balanced with heightened respect for the individuals and their community so they are not exploited.|
|Clinical Trial Clinical trials are conducted to evaluate pharmaceutical, biomedical, vaccination or other health interventions. They are especially important during a disaster or health emergency to improve aid responses and clinical care. However, poorly designed clinical trials may add additional burdens to affected populations.|
|Randomized Study Randomized studies are conducted when there is genuine uncertainty concerning the safety, effectiveness, or usefulness of an intervention. These studies make it possible to provide those affected by crises the most effective and safe interventions. However, conducting randomized studies in crisis settings carries increased risk and burdens for participants, and also raises questions about their ethical appropriateness.|
|Non-Randomized Study These are a group of research study designs that do not randomly allocate an intervention or treatment to participants. This type of study is often used in chronic-conflict or post-disaster settings to evaluate mental health interventions, psychosocial programs or system changes. It is an appropriate research design in scenarios where it is considered unethical to withhold an intervention from a study population or impractical to randomize participants. However, their use in biomedical research during acute health emergencies continues to be a point of disagreement on both ethical and scientific grounds.|
|Focus Group A qualitative study where a group of people comes together to answer questions and discuss issues at greater length and depth. Focus groups can be positively used to establish trust, collaboration, and understanding with an affected community|
|Surveillance Distinct from research practice, yet often mirroring research activities, surveillance is an important, ongoing public health practice. Surveillance involves ongoing, systematic collection and analysis of health-related data that is used to guide public health practice. To be a socially valuable tool, surveillance activities should be inclusive, accountable, aware of privacy and confidentiality issues, and beneficial to local populations.|